Graphene has become the focus of extensive research efforts and it can now be produced in wafer-scale. For the development of next generation graphene-based electronic components, electrical characterization of graphene is imperative and requires the measurement of work function, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility in both macro-, micro- and nano-scale. Moreover, commercial applications of graphene require fast and large-area mapping of electrical properties, rather than obtaining a single point value, which should be ideally achieved by a contactless measurement technique. We demonstrate a comprehensive methodology for measurements of the electrical properties of graphene that ranges from nano- to macro- scales, while balancing the acquisition time and maintaining the robust quality control and reproducibility between contact and contactless methods. The electrical characterisation is achieved by using a combination of techniques, including magneto-transport in the van der Pauw geometry, THz time-domain spectroscopy mapping and calibrated Kelvin probe force microscopy. The results exhibit excellent agreement between the different techniques. Moreover, we highlight the need for standardized electrical measurements in highly controlled environmental conditions and the application of appropriate weighting functions.

Towards standardisation of contact and contactless electrical measurements of CVD graphene at the macro-, micro- and nano-scale / Melios, Christos; Huang, Nathaniel; Callegaro, Luca; Centeno, Alba; Cultrera, Alessandro; Cordon, Alvaro; Panchal, Vishal; Arnedo, Israel; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Etayo, David; Fernandez, Montserrat; Lopez, Alex; Rozhko, Sergiy; Txoperena, Oihana; Zurutuza, Amaia; Kazakova, Olga. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 10:1(2020), p. 3223. [10.1038/s41598-020-59851-1]

Towards standardisation of contact and contactless electrical measurements of CVD graphene at the macro-, micro- and nano-scale

Callegaro, Luca;Cultrera, Alessandro;
2020

Abstract

Graphene has become the focus of extensive research efforts and it can now be produced in wafer-scale. For the development of next generation graphene-based electronic components, electrical characterization of graphene is imperative and requires the measurement of work function, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility in both macro-, micro- and nano-scale. Moreover, commercial applications of graphene require fast and large-area mapping of electrical properties, rather than obtaining a single point value, which should be ideally achieved by a contactless measurement technique. We demonstrate a comprehensive methodology for measurements of the electrical properties of graphene that ranges from nano- to macro- scales, while balancing the acquisition time and maintaining the robust quality control and reproducibility between contact and contactless methods. The electrical characterisation is achieved by using a combination of techniques, including magneto-transport in the van der Pauw geometry, THz time-domain spectroscopy mapping and calibrated Kelvin probe force microscopy. The results exhibit excellent agreement between the different techniques. Moreover, we highlight the need for standardized electrical measurements in highly controlled environmental conditions and the application of appropriate weighting functions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11696/64810
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